Бидай

932 рет оқылды, 100 пікір жазылды, 08 10 2017 00:21

Бидай-бүкіл әлемде 148 елдің негізгі азық-түлігі болып табылады және көптеген елдердің экономикасында ерекше орын алады.

Азық-түлік өнімі ретінде бидайдын көптеген аса бағалы қасиеттері бар. Бидай дәні — аса құнарлы да қуатты азық, оны сақтау да қиын емес, бір жерден екінші жерге тасып жеткізу де оңай және оны өңдеп алуан түрлі өнім алуға болады [8].

Бидай өнімдері өнеркәсіпте де кең көлемде пайдаланылады. Мысалы, бидай дәнінен крахмал, спирт, май, клейковина алынады. Бидай сабанынан қағаз картон, өнер бұйымдарын және басқа да заттар жасалынады. Барлық ауыспалы егіс жүйесінде бидай санитарлық дақыл болып табылады.

Қазақстан Республикасында 1991-1995 жылдары орта есеппен жыл сайын 17,9 мил. т. астық өндірілді, оның 10,5 мил. Тоннасы немесе 59%-ға таяуы бидай болып табылады.

Жер шарында 220 мил/га көлемінде бидай егістігі өсіріледі. Мұны барынша кең көлемде АҚШ, Үнді, Канада, Туркия, Австралия, Аргентина, Франсия, Италия, Ресей, Украйна, Қазақстан елдері өсіреді.

Республикамызда көп уақытқа дейін бидайдан аз өнім алынып жүрді. Оның басты себебі, Қазақстанның ұлан — байтақ солтүстігінде осы жерлерге бейімделген бидайдын түрлері атымен болған жоқ. Мұнда, негізінен, батыстан қоныс аударғандар ала келген, сонан соң жаңа жердін қатаң табиғатында сұрыптаудан өткен әрі жергілікті бидайлармен будандасқан бидай популяциялары егілді. Бұлардың өнімділігі айтарлықтай болмағанымен, ішінде жетіп пісілу мезгілі жағынан және кейбір биологиялық әрі шаруашылық қасиеттерімен ерекшеліктерімен өте бағалы түрлері кездесті. Олар қазіргі кезде жаңа сортарды шығару мақсатында селекциялық жұмыстарға кеңінен қолданылып жүр [6].

Бидай өнімдері тек адам үшін ғана емес, сонымен қатар мал үшін де бағалы азық. Ол құрама жем өнеркәсібі үшін негізгі компонент болып табылады. Мысалы, біздін елімізде 50 млн. тонна шамасындай бидай дәні мал азығы үшін пайдаланылады. Бидайдың өзінен және оның қалдықтарынан дайындалған жемнен үй жануарлары да, құстар да тез өсіп, жақсы семіреді.

Бидай сабаны да едәуір бағалы ол басқа дақылдармен бірге сүрлемге де салынады. Сүттеніп пісе бастаған көк күйінде орылып, малға берілетін бидай аса бағалы мал азығы [8].

Атап кеткен дақылдың маңыздылығында күмән жоқ. Сондықтан технологиялық сапалығын анықтауға өзім де үлес қостым. Кең байтақ жеріміздің бір элеваторында іс-сана өткенде: мен іс-сананы жалтыр элеваторында өттім. Жалтыр элеваторында біз бидайдың сапа көрсеткіштерін анықтадық. Бидай астығының сапасы көптеген көрсеткіштермен сипатталады :

1) физикалық көрсеткіштер-дәннің пішіні, ірілігі, натурасы, шынылығы, түсі, иісі;

2) химиялық көрсеткіштер-белок, клейковина;

Менің дипломдық жұмысым осы түскен астықтарда, тек анықтауға емес. Сонымен қатар талдау жасап ұсыныстар беруге арналған.

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