Неркәсіп орындарындағы жұмысшылардың әлеуметтік жағдайы

2 362 рет оқылды, 132 пікір жазылды, 08 10 2017 00:28

XX ғасырдың басында Ресей патшалығының отары ретіндегі Қазақстанда негізінен өнеркәсіптің екі саласы, яғни тау-кен өндірісі мен кен-зауыт өнеркәсібі, сондай-ақ, ауыл шаруашылығы, оның ішінде мал өнімдерін ұқсату жөніндегі өнеркәсіп жатқызылды. Әсіресе, тау-кен өнеркәсібі түсті металдар мен темірдің бай кен орындарын пайдаланып жатқан Алтай мен Орталық Қазақстанда өркендеді. Бірақ, ғасыр басында мыс, алтын, темір жөне басқа қазба байлықтарын шығаратын еліміздің тау-кен кәсіпорындары, негізінен, шетелдік акционерлік қоғамдардың қолына көшті. Мысалы, 1904 жылы Лондонда пайда болған Спаск мыс кендерінің ағылшын-француз акционерлік қоғамы Спаск-Успенск мыс кені мен заводын, Саран-Қарағанды тас көмір кенін және рудниктерін түгелдей сатып алып, пайдаланды.

Қазақ өлкесінің ғасыр басындағы тау-кен өнеркәсібінің басты салаларының бірі алтын шығару болды. Сонымен қатар, Екібастұзда, Қарағандыда, Саранда көмір кен орындары мол пайдаланылды. Өндірілген көмір темір жолмен және су жолдарымен Ресейдің Пермь губерниясына, Омбы мен Барнаулға, сондай-ақ, өлкенің Павлодар, Қызылжар және басқа да қалаларына жеткізіліп отырды.

Осы кезеңде Батыс Қазақстан өңірі мен Орал-Ембі аймағында мұнай шығару өнеркәсібі де біршама дамыды. Бірақ, ол кәсіпорындар толығымен шетел капиталистерінің билігінде қала берді. Тек, І912-1914 жылдардың өзінде ғана ағылшын капиталистеріне қарасты «Батыс-Орал мұнай қоғамы», «Орал-Ембі қоғамы», «Солтүстік Каспий мұнай компаниясы» өлкенің арзан жұмысшы күшін пайдаланып, бәсекелестіктің болмауына байланысты мұнайдың мол бай кен орындарын жыртқыштықпен пайдалана отыра, өздеріне өлшеусіз, ұшан-теңіз пайда әкеліп жатты.

Осындай себептерге байланысты, Қазақстанның кен өнеркәсібі бұл кезеңде жергілікті капитал негізінде өсіп шыққан жоқ. Оны сырттан келген орыс және шетел капиталы жасады. Оның өнімі түгелдей дерлік өлкеден тыс жерлерге әкетілді, ал пайда XX ғасырдың басынан бастап шетелге кетіп жатты. Осының бәрі кен өнеркәсібінің Қазақстанның әлеуметтік-экономикалық өсуіне ықпалын күрт кемітті.

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