Әлеуметтік жіктелу теориясы және оның мәні

4 489 рет оқылды, 91 пікір жазылды, 08 10 2017 00:10

ХХ ғасырда әлеуметтік жіктелу және әлеуметтік мобильділік теориясын жасауға М.Вебер, П.Сорокин, Т.Парсонс, Р.Мертон және т.б. белсене қатысты. Олар таптық түсінікті алып тастамай, әлеуметтік құрылымның негізгі элементі ретінде ғылыми айналымға жік немесе страта деген түсінік ендірді. «Страт» латын тілінде жік, қабат деген сөзден туған, ол геологияда жер қыртысының қабаттарын білдіреді. Бұл бірнеше белгілермен ерекшеленген әр түрлі жіктердің қосындысы ретінде ұсынылды. Мұндай белгілерге табыс (доход), кіріс, білім, бедел (престиж), ақпарат пен билікке ие болу жатты. Осылардың негізінде әлеуметтік жіктің жоғары, орташа және төменгі сияқты басты үш деңгейі айқындалды. Бұл жіктердің (қауымдастық) арасындағы қарым‑қатынас, қызмет ету ерекшеліктері, өзгерістері мен дамуы әлеуметтік құрылымның басты өзегі саналып, ол әлеуметтік жіктелу (стратификация) теориясы деп аталды.

Сөйтіп қоғамның түрліше әлеуметтік топтарға, қауымдастықтарға тағы басқаға жіктелуі батыстық әлеуметтануда көбінесе әлеуметтік стратификация деген терминмен белгіленеді. Алайда, қазақтың мағынасы жағынан «страта» ұғымынан әсте кем емес, ежелгі сөзі әрі қазақ ұлттық ойлау жүйесінде қалыптасқан «жік, жіктелу» деген ұғымдарды негізге алып отырмыз.

Әлеуметтік құрылымды зерттегенде әлеуметтік жіктелу теориясы қоғамдағы барлық топтарды қарастырып, олардың қоғамдағы жағдайын айтарлықтай толық және терең сипаттайтындай белгілерді (өлшемдерді) басшылыққа алады. Мысалы, меншікке ие болудың сипаты, табыстың мөлшері, мұрагерлік, білімнің деңгейі, мамандық мәртебесі, биліктің аумағы, ұлттық ерекшеліктер және т.б. Егер топтар бір белгінің негізінде жіктелсе (мысалы, табысының мөлшеріне немесе билік жүргізуге қатысына қарай т.т.) ол бір өлшемдік жіктеуге жатады. Егер бірнеше белгінің негізінде болса, ол көп өлшемдік жіктелу болып саналады.

XX ғасырдың екінші жартысында Батыс Еуропа мен АҚШ әлеуметтанушылары әлеуметтік жіктелу құбылысын тереңірек зерттеп, капиталистік қоғамда таптар арасындағы қайшылықтар бәсеңдегенімен олардың түрлі топтарға, жіктерге, таптарға бөліну үдерісі күшейе түскенін атап көрсетті. Осымен байланысты олардың арасындағы қарым‑қатынасты реттеуге байланысты ұсыныстар негізделді.

Осы кездегі әлеуметтік жіктелу (стратификация) теориясының көрнекті өкілдерінің бірі П.А. Сорокин қоғамдағы адамдардың жоғары және төменгі топтарға жіктелуіне әсер ететін факторлар ретінде экономикалық, кәсіби, саяси белгілерді атай отырып, олардың бір-бірімен сабақтас, байланысты екендігін ескертеді. Байлығы бар жоғары экономикалық топтардың өкілдері бір жағынан жоғары саяси және кәсіби топтарға жатса, екінші жағынан, олардың билікке енуіне мүмкіндігі мол. Сондай-ақ билігі бар адамның жоғары кәсіби дайындығы да бар, соған сәйкес байлығы да болып жатады.

Ал американдық әлеуметтанушы Т. Парсонс қоғамдағы әлеуметтік жіктелуді үш топқа біріктіреді. Біріншісіне — адамның туа бітті әлеуметтік факторлары: дене бітімі, этникалық тегі, жыныстық, жастық ерекшеліктері, туыстық байланыстары мен интеллектуалдық қабілеті және т.б.; Екіншісіне ‑ қызмет түрі, мамандығы және кәсіби деңгейі; Үшінші топқа материалдық және рухани құндылықтар мен артықшылықтар жатқызылды. Сол сияқты қазіргі нарық жағдайындағы әлеуметтік жіктелу үдерісінде адамның білім деңгейі, кәсіби шеберлігі мен белсенділігі, мәртебесінің жоғарылығы сияқты толып жатқан әлеуметтік факторлардың маңызы арта түсуде.

Жоғарыда аталған факторлар түгел дерлік бүгінгі әлеуметтік жіктелу үдерісінде орын алып отыр. Қоғам дамуының белгілі бір кезеңінде бұл факторлардың біреуі маңыздырақ болса, келесі бір кезеңде екіншісінің маңызы арта түсуі мүмкін. Бұл қоғамның саяси жүйесінің сипатына да байланысты. Мәселен, кеңес қоғамындағы сатылық жіктелу үдерісінде саяси факторлар маңыздырақ еді. Билік саласыңда қызмет еткендер мен басқарушы партияның мүшелерінің байлық пен меншікке қол жеткізулерінде мүмкіңдіктері басқаларға қарағанда молырақ байқалды.

Қазіргі әлеуметтанушылар арасында қоғамның әлеуметтік құрылымын 4 жікке бөлу тұрақталды. Олар мыналар: жоғары тап, орта тап, жұмысшы табы және төменгі тап. Жоғары тапқа ірі меншік иелері — қаржы және өнеркәсіп магнаттары, жоғары билік элиталары ‑ мемлекет президенті, премьер-министрі, министрлер, жеке ведомстволар мен мекеме басшылары және т.б. Бұлардың қоғамдағы үлес салмағы аз, олар дамыған елдерде шамамен халықтың 1-5 пайызын құрайды. Алайда, олар жоғары мәртебесі мен шамадан тыс байлығы арқасында қоғамның экономикалық және саяси өмірінде елеулі рөл атқарады. Осымен қатар кейбір елдерде жоғары тапқа білім және мәдени дәрежелері, қоғамдағы мәртебелері жоғары шенді әскери топтар мен шығармашылық интеллигенцияның танымал өкілдері де жатады.

Адамзат дамуының соңғы кезеңінде өз қатарына әр түрлі әлеуметтік топтардың, мамандықтардың өкілдерін біріктірген орта таптың қоғамдағы рөлі ерекше болып отыр. Олар тұрақты, сенімді қызмет орындары, жоғары табыстары және заман талабына сай өмір салттары бар мәдениет, білім, ғылым, денсаулық, дін салаларының қызметкерлері, орта және шағын кәсіпкерлер, маманданған жұмысшылар және т.б. Бұлар — экономикалық және саяси тұрғыдан тәуелсіз, тиісті меншік (жер, құңды қағаздар, қозғалмайтын мүліктері, т.б.) иелері. Олар, біріншіден, өркениетті дамыған қоғамның жоғары мамандық иелерінен тұратын негізгі интеллектуалдық күші; екіншіден, халықтың 50-60 пайызын құрайды. Сондықтан оларды қоғамдағы әлеуметтік тәртіп пен тұрақтылықтың тірегі десе де болады.

Орта таптың өкілдері сан алуан. Олар билікке қатынастары, кәсіби және білім деңгейлеріне, табыстарының көлеміне қарай: а) жоғары орта тап; ә) орташа орта тап; в) төменгі орта тап болып жіктеледі.

Қазіргі ғылыми-техникалық прогресс заманында жұмысшы табы еңбегінің мазмұны, сипаты, оның бейнесі өткен дәуірдегіден мүлдем өзгерді. Олардың тұрақты табыстары, белгілі бір дәрежеде білім және кәсіби дайындықтары жеткілікті. Сол себепті олар механикалаңдырылған және автоматтандырылған өндіріс салаларында ‑ зауыттар мен фабрикаларда, ауыл шаруашылық кәсіпорындары мен халыққа қызмет көрсету салаларында белсенді еңбек ете алады.

Төменгі тап та құрамы жағынан сан алуан. Оларға арнайы мамандықтары жоқ жұмысшылар, жұмыссыздар, қайыршылар, босқыңдар, қылмыскерлер және т.б. жатады. Бұлардың көпшілігінің тұрақты табыс көздері болмағандықтан, олар абсолютті кедейшілік жағдайда өмір сүреді.

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